Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Memory Activity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Memory Activity - Essay Example Alphabet technique could also be of help, in this strategy, you need to identify a word which begins with the same sound as each letter in the alphabet and then associate the word's image with the item to be remembered. Encoding information in an elaborate, meaningful way helps in retention. When possible convert verbal information into mental images, when learning about events and facts, try to focus on their meaning rather than their superficial characteristics. Another example is when you are memorizing for numbers, it is easy to memorize letters or words than numbers, put some codes in your number to have some meaning, for example, 5=L (because there are five fingers on our left hand). It takes time to fully memorize everything that is needed to memorize. For example you are about to memorize 20 words, divide it by 5, memorize each 5 items one at a time until you can remember all of them without looking, then memorize the next group and so on. Take your time in memorizing because, patience is a virtue especially if you are going to memorize lone lines. Take time out Our brains need also to rest to function very well. Study at night and get plenty

Sunday, November 17, 2019

How would you describe the expansion of the United States between 1783 Research Paper

How would you describe the expansion of the United States between 1783 and 1840s - Research Paper Example The expansion that took place in the period between 1783 and 1840 is the reason behind the large size of the USA and its current strong economic position. Is also led to the end of slave trade in the USA The first expansion of the USA took place in 1783 after the treaty of Paris which brought to an end the revolutionary war. England agreed to the claims of the Americans to own the southern land which included the great lakes and the Mississippi river (Rothman 57). The Americans were not successful in getting the Gulf of Mexico, and it remained under ownership of Spain. The next expansion of the United States took place in 1787 whereby the US expanded with the Northwest ordinance of 1787 (Rothman 116). This ordinance established the Northwest Territory, which covered states such as of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The expansion is renowned for having banned slavery in the north of Ohio River. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson talked terms of the purchase of the French claims on the Louisiana territory which they had previously obtained from the Spain. The negotiations were secret, and it is believed that the president purchased the territory at a price of $15million. The land purchased included the western half of the Mississippi river, and it doubled the initial size of the USA. The purchase also extended to the Gulf of Mexico, which was very productive in agriculture. Settler’s movement to the Louisiana territory raised the question of slave trade. The settlers applied for statehood after reaching a number of 60000 and in 1819, it officially became a slave state (Morgan 34). Before 1810, the country had occupied most parts of the Mississippi river but had little control over its mouth which was located in the Spanish Florida (Shelly 239). In 1810, the United States seized the western part of Florida, and it led to the outbreak of war between the Spaniards and the Americans (Smith 17). However, the Spaniards relented since

Friday, November 15, 2019

Important Of Sight For The Purpose Of Survival Biology Essay

Important Of Sight For The Purpose Of Survival Biology Essay The importance of sight has been one of the most taken for granted systems in the human body. Sight, like the other four senses, plays an important role in the survival of an individual. In primitive humans, a loss of vision would make predator avoidance and food gathering difficult. Hence, there is an evolutionary pressure to maintain vision even when the eye sustains injury. While the eye is highly developed, certain post trauma mechanisms have evolved in such a way that our visual axis will not be altered, which would normally lead to instant blindness. Damage done to any normal part of the body usually leads to some sort of immunological response, including inflammation caused by the lymphocytes. Due to the physiology of the ocular system of mammals, the cornea cannot sustain inflammation, which can lead to the changing of the visual axis, thus leading to blindness. In primitive man, blindness could potentially lead to the individuals death. In order to prevent this, certain immu nological responses are suppressed in the cornea, allowing vision to remain. Keratitis is the clinical diagnosis of inflammation of the cornea, which if left untreated, can lead to blindness of the patient. This paper will use the Darwinian Medical approach and the Adaptationist Program to discuss the implications of the suppressed immune response in development and treatment of keratitis and the various microbial and mechanical causes thereof. In order to understand topics covered in this paper, a basic explanation of structures of the eye, their functions, as well as mechanisms and associated pathogens must be explained. Keep in mind, what will be mentioned is a buildup all to save the visual axis. The main anatomical focuses of the eye for this paper are the cornea and the anterior chamber. Concluding this will be a brief description of Darwinian Medicine and the Adaptationist Program. The cornea has two main functions and is composed of five layers. It acts as a protective membrane for the eye. The five layers consist of the following, in order from anterior to posterior, an external stratified squamous epithelium, an anterior limiting membrane (Bowmans membrane, the basement membrane o the stratified epithelium), the stroma, a posterior limiting membrane (Descemets membrane, the basement membrane of the endothelium), and an inner simple squamous endothelium. 1. The main functions of the cornea are to act as a protective membrane as well as to be the transparent window that allows light to enter through the eye to the retina. This unique transparency is due to the uniformity of the cell structure, being devoid of blood vessels, and being in a constant state of dehydration. If the epithelium is damaged, there is only a temporary regional build up of watery fluids in the stroma. However, if trauma is severe enough to expose any corneal layer below the epithelium, the cornea then becomes susceptible to infection of a variety of pathogens. These include, but are not limited to the following: bacteria, fungus, amoeba, and herpes virus.2. Without medical intervention, the basic stages of corneal infections are as followed: trauma, entrance of pathogen, inflammation of the cornea, ulceration, loss of vision, and even possibly loss of the eye. Located between the endothelium of the cornea and the iris, is a fluid filled cavity called the anterior chamber. The anterior chamber of the eyeball is filled with thick liquid-like substance called the aqueous humor. Its primary function is to maintain a normal intraocular pressure as well as provide nutrition for the tissues with no veins attached to them. In the anterior chamber, specifically the aqueous humor, there is a presence of a wide variety of immunoglobulins, as well as a wide variety of immunosuppressive substances such as transforming-growth-factor- Ã‚ ¢ and macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor. A theory deemed Anterior-chamber associated immune deviation will be discussed later in this paper alongside with ocular-immune privilege. 3. The Darwinian Medical approach looks at both proximate, biological causes, as well as the ultimate, evolutionary causes to explain a disease or an immune function such as a fever. Ultimate causes are usually more complex in their explanations, which include defense, infection, novel environment, genes, design compromise, and evolutionary legacy all of which are evolutionary driven by four forces: natural selection, mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift. Evolutionary causes of an excessive and uncontrolled defense mechanism can affect the risk of the disease. Other risk factors include losing the evolutionary arms race, the preservation of an allele that is harmful, and the result of evolutionary constraints. While keratitis is classified as an infliction, it is actually an immune response related to the infiltration of a pathogen in the cornea. As stated above, keratitis is the inflammation of the cornea. Symptoms include mild to sever pain in the eye, redness of the eye, opaque cornea, photosensitivity, and tearing. Clinical diagnosis of keratitis is done through examination using a slit lamp and proper illumination, Fluorescein stain to detect superficial corneal lesions, and laboratory examinations of corneal scrapings to detect pathogens. 2. Inflammation caused by pathogens is potentially harmful leading up to corneal ulceration, loss of the visual axis, and potentially blindness. The inflammation however is the lesser of two evils, for without having this immune response, the sight of the infected would be doomed to blindness. While this is true, an eyes last-ditch effort to remove the pathogen leads to over-inflammation and ulceration of the cornea. At that point, unless a corneal transplant is done alongside with medicine to kill the pathogen, the eye has given up and the host goes blind. To regulate inflammation and prevent ulceration, it has been hypothesized that there is design compromise called ocular immune privilege in the eye that regulates inflammation up to a certain point. This will be discussed later. The epidemiological qualities of keratitis fluctuate etiologically as well as geographically. Keratitis has risen in both developing countries as well as modernized countries, afflicting people worldwide with no restrictions based on economic status. Thousands of patients each year are diagnosed with some form of pathogenic keratitis, having each pathogen found in particular environments found worldwide. Anyone involved in agriculture is usually at risk for fungal keratitis. Anyone wearing contacts are at an even higher risk for not only fungal keratitis, but also bacterial and amoeba induced keratitis. However, anyone who has any sort of ocular trauma led to lesions in the cornea is susceptible to any form of microbial keratitis. 2. The evolutionary legacy of ocular immune privilege is the result of evolutionary constraints and design compromises. In order to preserve the function of the eye, inflammation is regulated by the hosts adaptive immunity, specifically called ocular immune privilege. Immune privilege has been recognized in only three organs; the testes and ovaries, the brain, and the eye. 5. Coincidentally, these are some of the most important organs in the body related to survival and spreading of ones genome. Adaptive immunity is compromised of lymphocytes that throughout life generate unique receptor molecules that recognize with extraordinary specificity molecules expressed by invading pathogens. 3. (pg 11). It is important to understand this concept to elucidate the mechanisms of ocular immune privilege and ACAID. Ocular Immune privilege was first described about 130 years ago. However, its importance was not recognized until the early 1940s by P.B. Medawar and his colleagues. During the 1970s, it was discovered that ocular immune privilege was caused by anatomical, physiological, and immunoregulatory processes, which prevent the introduction and expression of immune-mediated inflammation. Many ophthalmological researchers agree that ocular immune privilege is an adaptation for reducing immune-mediated injury to ocular cells that have limited or no capacity for regeneration.6. The three major mechanisms of ocular immune privilege are as followed: (1) there are anatomical, cellular, and molecular barriers in the eye; (2) eye-derived immunological tolerance (ACAID); and (3) immune suppressive microenvironment in the eye. 5. Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation, or ACAID, is directly related to the ocular immune privilege theory. ACAID is characterized by impaired antigen-specific delayed -type hypersensitivity and reduced production of complement fixing antibodies. 3. It is an observable fact that allows the antibody response but not the cellular responses mentioned above. 5. The discovery happened when there was a prolonged survival of genetically different transplanted tissue survived in the anterior chamber of the eye. The failure of the immune system to bring forth an immunological response composes the characteristics of immune privilege. This is the reason why corneal transplants are one of the most successful, and least rejected tissue transplant clinically practices. Most tissue transplants are rejected due to inflammation however, the cornea has a weaker immune response caused by low antigenicity, the difference between corneal versus other tissue grafts. 7. The mechanisms of ACAID involve both the eye and the spleen. Transforming Growth factor TGF- Ã‚ ¢2 and thrombospondind TSP-1 located in the anterior chamber are involved in the initiation of mediation of ACAID. Through this, there is an attraction of regionally located natural killer T cells, which bind to CDQd molecules to present the antigens. When these cells come in contact with marginal zone B cells, clusters are formed which then differentiate into ACAID-inducing regulatory T cells. 5. A recent discovery made by Molly E. Skelsy and colleagues, concluded that  Ã‚ Ã‚ ¤ T cells are needed for ocular immune privilege and corneal graft survival. The study used mice treated with anti- Ã‚ Ã‚ ¤ Ab failed to develop ACAID concluding the injection of spleen cells. It was concluded that these T cells were required for the creation of regulatory T cells. By blocking the creation of  Ã‚ Ã‚ ¤ T cells, Skelsey showed that there was a profound increase in corneal transplant reje ctions. 8. Another recent discovery was that thymocytes, cells created by thymus that generate into T lymphocytes, are also necessary for the induction of ACAID. Thus the sustainment of immune privilege in the eye is done through the mutual aid of various cells from organs other than the eye itself. 5. The adaptive immunity is expressed in the form of humoral immunity mediated by antibodies produced by B lympocytes, and in the form of cellular immunity mediated by T lymphocytes. 3. (pg 15) Clearly, ocular immune privilege isnt something that just arose out of nowhere. It has been an evolutionary legacy, because whatever beneficial implications it had, leading up to ACAID, must have been immediately beneficial for it to exist throughout the evolution of many mammals such as humans and even mice. In 2008, Xiaoyong Yuan and colleagues did a study to compare the gene expression patterns in uninfected and fungus-infected mouse corneas at the onset of Candida albicans fungal keratitis. Candida ablican related corneal infections cause an inflammatory response, which has been known to permanently impair vision in half of all eyes affected, including those with therapy. Infected eyes were observed and corneal transcriptomes were categorized to suggest pathways contributing to corneal inflammation during Candida related keratitis. Through the use of gene microarray, the hosts gene expression during the early stages of this keratitis was also observed in mouse models. RNA isolated from the corneas one day after inoculation were used for reverse transcription of the RNA which would then be used in a quantitative real-time RT-PCR to multiply the amount of DNA created. Gene expression levels were calculated for both the experimental group and the control group. When comparing the two groups, a total of 45,102 genes were detected. Of those genes, 3,977, roughly 8.82% of the infected corneas were significantly regulated. Of those genes, 1987 were upregulated and 1,990 were down-regulated. A total of 3.71% were differentially expressed, 1,075 being upregulated and the other 597 being down-regulated. Specifically, there were 30 different genes being upreglated more than 100 fold. These genes were categorized as chemokines, metalloproteinases, interleukin cytokines, leukocyte chemotaxis and surface molecules, Ig recept ors, Neuro-hormone mediatiors and many others. Simply stated, these gene expressions suggest that microbial keratitis involves the synchrony of various host processes that affect inflammatory and immune responses, intercellular communication, and cellular metabolism in other words, ocular immune privilege and ACAID. 9. Keratitis is a microbial infliction occurring globally. Bacteria, parasites, virus, and fungus cause the four main microbial causes for infection. These microbes are currently winning the at arms race due to an increased virulence and re-infection after treatment. At the same time, because there have been changes in mans history, various novel environments have been associated with the etiology of all these infections. Looking at a study in a referral centre in South India from September 1999 through August 2002, MJ Bharathi and colleagues observed and calculated the statistics of keratitis in that referral centre. Of 3183 corneal scrapings evaluated, 1095(34.4%) were fungal related, 1043(32.77%) were bacterial related, 33(1.04%) were acanthamoeba related and 76(2.39) were both bacterial and fungal related. Of the 1043 bacterial related infections, the predominant isolated bacteria were Streptococcus. Males were 56.76% of cases and females were 43.24%, thus showing that sex doesnt af fect the infiltration rate. In the study, 60.2% patients were over the age of 50 were affected significantly more than patients under the age of 50. Roughly 16.97% of corneal injuries were due to soil/sand, compared to the 11.03% caused by other materials, showing a statistical significance between the two. Seasons also affected the rate of infections showing a lower incidence of bacterial keratitis from the months of June to September. 10. The epidemiology of bacterial keratitis varies based on geography. One could acquire keratitis from numerous gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus. Once the bacteria has touched base with the cornea, it colonizes the hosts cells by using adhesins at the surface of the epithelium. The adherence of these three bacteria to the corneal epithelium is significantly higher than any other bacteria, which explains their high frequency of isolation. Several bacteria have also displayed adhesins on pili and nonfimbriae structures to recognize carbohydrates on host cells. Recently, there have been emerging cases of resistance among pathogens, requiring the emersion of a stronger antibacterial to eradicate it. 11. The advent of contact lenses has created a novel environment for the infiltration of many bacterial pathogens. In the United States, there are approximately 25,000 cases of infectious keratitis annually. There are roughly 2-4 infections per 10,000 soft contact lenses users, and 10-20 infections per 10,000 extended-wear contact lenses users. 14. A study done by T. Bourcier and colleagues has identified predisposing factors of bacterial keratitis. After analyzing 300 cases, contacts were the main risk factor, occurring in 50.3% of the study group, with 83% of bacteria being gram positive, and 17% being gram negative. 12. Another study of a case report done by Konstantinos Tsaousis and colleagues concluded that the incidence of bacterial keratitis can be reduced by maintaining high standards of lens hygiene and following the recommended guidelines to safely wearing contacts. 13. In the past, fungal keratitis has been a major ophthalmological problem in the tropical regions of the world. 16. Of all of the fungus related to keratitis, there are two classifications of infiltrates yeast and filamentous fungi. The three main isolates of fungus in fungal keratitis are Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Candida. While the most common of isolate reported has been Aspergillus, ranging from 27-64%, Fusarium comes to a close second (6-32%). Like bacterial keratitis, contact lenses wearers are at a higher risk of fungal infection. In recent news, on March 8, 2006, the CDC began an investigation of the use of Bausch Lomb ReNu contact lens solution. The solution had been related to a series of 130 confirmed cases of Fusarium Keratitis, which resulted in 37 corneal transplant surgeries. Most fungal related incidences however are usually related to agriculture. Since fungus are found in soil and on plants, the probability of infection after ocular trauma increases if one is tendi ng to their crops. Once the fungus accesses the corneal stroma, they multiply and cause tissue necrosis leading to the onset of keratitis and the loss of stromal opacity. 15. Acanthamoeba related keratitis is usually derived from standing water or mud, with an increased risk in contact users. Incidence per million contact lens users includes 333 in Hong Kong, 1 in USA and 149 in Scotland 14. The abnormally high incidence in Scotland is due to the fact that there are many water towers, holding standing water, a novel environment for the acanthamoeba. Survival in the wild is not only based on ones ability to escape a predator, but also ones ability to detect the predator. The up keeping the visual axis is one of the most important abilities of the eyes immune abilities for without sight, many mammals would be at disadvantage. Keratitis, the inflammation of the cornea, has probably been around since the dawn of man, and more specifically, the dawn of agriculture. If injury to the eye were to be sustained, the cornea would become inflamed. Normally, corneal cellular layers would be impaired, leading to a loss of the visual axis. However, it has been observed that there is a key mechanism that has developed over time in order to save ones sight. There is an ocular immune privilege, considered to be an evolutionary legacy as well as a design compromise, in the anterior chamber of the eye, which limits certain immune functions to prevent the loss of vision. The microbial pathogens cause these infections ranges from bacterial, to funga l, viral, and amoebic have been detected around the world, causing countless keratitis infections. Novel environments, such as contact lenses, have created the perfect environment for these pathogens to culture on especially if proper care protocols havent been taken. While most of these infections are treatable, in the long term, the microbes are winning the at arms race. With increase resistance to anti-bacterials/fungals, pathogens will only become more virulent. From an epidemiological standpoint, microbial keratitis poses a serious threat for future infected patients, occurring world-wide. Mescher, Anthony L. PhD. (2010). Junqueiras Basic Histology: Text Atlas, 12e. In accessmedicine. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=6183284searchStr=cornea#6183284. Biswell, Roderick MD. (2008). Vaughan Asburys General Ophthalmology, 17e. In accessmedicine. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3090961searchStr=cornea#3090961. Streilein, J.W. et al, 1999: Immune Response and the Eye. Karger, Switzerland Nesse, R. M. and Williams, G.C. 1994: p.x, Why We Get Sick. The New Science of Darwinian Medicine, Vintage, New York Junko Hori. (July 16, 2008). Mechanisms of immune privilege in the anterior segment of the eye: what we learn from corneal transplantation. In PubMed Central Journal List. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802514/?tool=pubmed. Niederkorn, Jerry Y. PhD, Streilein, Joan. PhD. (January 2010). History and Physiology of Immune Privilege. In Informa healthcare. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09273940903564766. Junko Hori, MD, PhD1, Vega, Jose L. MD, PhD2, Sharmila Masli, PhD3. (October 2010). Review of Ocular Immune Privilege in the Year 2010: Modifying the Immune Privilege of the Eye. In Informa healthcare. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09273948.2010.512696. Skelsey, Molly E., Mellon, Jessamee., Niederkorn, Jerry Y. . (2001). {{gamma}}{{delta}}T Cells Are Needed for Ocular Immune Privilege and Corneal Graft Survival. In The Journal of Immunology. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/reprint/166/7/4327. Xiaoyong Yuan, Mitchell, Bradley M., and Wilhelmus, Kirk R. (September 18, 2008). Gene profiling and signaling pathways of Candida albicans keratitis. In PubMed Central Journal List. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562425/. Bharathi MJ, Ramakrishnan R, Vasu S, Meenakshi R, Shivkumar C, Palaniappan R. Epidemiology of bacterial keratitis in a referral centre in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2003;21:239-45 OBrien, T P . (February 2003). Management of bacterial keratitis: beyond exorcism towards consideration of organism and host factors. In Cambridge Ophthalmological Symposium. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://www.nature.com/eye/journal/v17/n8/full/6700635a.html. Bourcier T, Thomas F, Borderie V, Chaumeil C, Laroche L . (January 10, 2003). Bacterial keratitis: predisposing factors, clinical and microbiological review of 300 cases. In PubMed Central Journal List. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1771775/?tool=pubmed. Tsaousis K.T., Sakkias G., Kozeis N., Tahiaos P. . (July 19, 2010). A Management Dilemma: Infectious Keratitis Associated with Soft Contact Lens Use and Dubious Treatment Compliance. In PubMed Central Journal List. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2935133/?tool=pubmed. Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH. (December 2, 2009). Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis. In Emedicine from WebMD. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/798100-overview. Daljit Singh, MBBS, MS, DSc. (June 12, 2008). Keratitis, Fungal. In Emedicine from WebMD. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1194167-overview. Gopinathan, Usha Ph.D et al . (August 2002). The Epidemiological Features and Laboratory Results of Fungal Keratitis: A 10-Year Review at a Referral Eye Care Center in South India. In Cornea, The Journal of Cornea and External Disease. Retrieved 10/1/10, from http://journals.lww.com/corneajrnl/Abstract/2002/08000/The_Epidemiological_Features_and_Laboratory.4.aspx.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Pros and Cons of High Fructose Corn Syrup Essay -- Artificial Sweetene

High-Fructose Corn Syrup Abstract: High-fructose corn syrup is a commonly used artificial sweetener in foods. High-fructose corn syrup is a hydrolyzed version of ordinary corn syrup, which is produced via a steeping process. It is so widely used because it is both economically favorable and it helps to preserve food for extended periods of time. However, the drawbacks of high-fructose corn syrup include issues like potential obesity, diabetes, loss of liver function, malnutrition, and cancer. The fact that the producers of high-fructose corn syrup can deceive people that HFCS is harmless makes matters worse. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an artificial sweetener commonly used in the United States. As its name implies, this sweetener is derived from agricultural corn. All high fructose corn syrups are corn syrups whose fructose content has been increased via enzymatic processes and then mixed with pure corn syrup. There are several different formulations of high-fructose corn syrup. The product sold in the United States (HFCS #2) has the following composition: moisture, 29%; dry substance, 71% D.S.; dextrose, 50% D.S.; ash, 0.03 D.S.; and nitrogen, 0.002% D.S. The amounts of dextrose, fructose, and other saccharides may vary slightly in HFCS #3, but the analysis is fairly consistent. HFCS #1 hasn’t been commercially sold specifically for consumer consumption in the U.S. for many years. Instead, it is used by food producers in their products. 2 The process by which high fructose corn syrup is made is complicated. To start, ordinary corn syrup must be obtained. Then, enzymatic processes increase its original sweetness. To produce the basic un-enhanced corn syrup, wet milling is a commonly used technique. Wet-milling includ... ...Jones. 2006. 24 July 2008. . Forristal, Linda. â€Å"The Murky World of High-Fructose Corn Syrup.† Westonaprice.org. Ed. Linda Forristal. 2003. 24 July 2008. . Inglett, George E. Symposium: Sweeteners. Westport, Connecticut: The Avi Publishing Company, Inc., 1974. HFCSFacts.com. 2008. The Corn Refiners Association. 25 July 2008. Steindom, Joel. â€Å"My Food Manifesto, Part One: The Bad News.† Steidom.com. Ed. Joel Steindom, Heather Steindom. 2007. 24 July 2008. . National Academy of Sciences (U.S.). Sweeteners: Issues and Uncertainties. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1975. Lachmann, Alfred. Starches and Corn Syrups. New Jersey: Noyes Data Corporation., 1970.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Addiction and Behavior Essay

Thesis Statement: In this paper, I will try and analyze addiction and the various behaviors that addiction will induce in an individual, and I will also describe the kinds of addiction that an average individual is prone to, and research the efforts that are being made for an addict to try to control his offensive behavior brought on by his addiction. Experts feel and do stress on the fact that addictions and compulsions of any kind stem and originate from an overwhelming feeling of not being in control of one’s life, and a need to gain some form of control over events that seem to be overtaking him or her. Certain addictions, however, possess genetic components, and are generally passed on within the family, where one member may have been addicted or been prone to compulsive behaviors. He may have inadvertently passed on this behavior to the next generation, and in these cases, this vicious cycle would continue. Addictions can be of several kinds. One such compulsion is that of an addiction to drugs or other substances, and another is an obsession for sex. Eating disorders can also qualify as addictions of compulsions, and overspending, gambling and overworking too are obsessive and compulsive disorders. According to experts, â€Å"The power of fantasy is the enduring power of addiction†, wherein an addict may be prone to developing fantasies of having gained a sense of control over his life, because of his addiction. The addict would then be quite unwilling to give up these drug induced fantasies and enter a normal life again, and this can be one of the major problems that an addict may face at the time when he is addicted; no matter what his addiction may be. The addicted individual would more often than not choose to induce mood changes in himself, instead of trying to address the actual causes of the stresses that he is faced with. Take for example an alcoholic; he would prefer to drink and blame the failure of his marriage on his spouse, rather than face the underlying issues behind the failure of his marriage. In this lies the causes and the reasons for his continued addiction to alcohol. Take the example of a money addict. This individual would prefer to binge on a spending spree, rather than face the underlying money issues, and making use of the money to settle his debts. In short, an addict behaves in such a way that he believes with strong conviction that no matter what stresses life may have to throw at him, he would be able to face them all, as long as he has his own addiction to get him through life’s tough situations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  (Earll, Steven, 2004) As a result of extensive scientific research done through the years, today one can be reasonably sure that addiction as such can be qualified as a disease that affects one’s brain as well as one’s behaviors. It is interesting to note that in the past, scientists attributed addictive behaviors related to drug and alcohol abuse to the fact that the user lacked in willpower, and that he could, if he wished to, bring an end to his addictions. This was the view that shaped most of society’s responses to addicts; an addict was viewed as a morally flawed individual, who displayed serious moral failing by being unable to control his own behaviors. It is only today that the average individual is able to comprehend the basic fact that addiction may be the result of a combination of different factors, and that it can must be treated as a disease than could cause great harm to one’s health. Scientists today use this vital knowledge to create and develop effective methods of treatment, which would be able to reduce the toll that addiction has on the individual’s family and friends. Today, preventive drug abuse has gained precedence over other forms of treatment, and this has been proven to help addicts get over their addictions with a reasonable amount of success. Drug addiction or abuse as such can be described as a chronic and relapsing disease that affects the brain of the user, despite the user being aware of the fact that such abuse can result in grave consequences for him in the long run. One must remember that the longer an individual is addicted to drugs, the more harmful the impact of the drugs on his brain, and the more harmful his behavior may become. To understand the true nature of addiction, one must first try to understand why people take drugs, and exactly why they become addicted to drugs and other substances. One of the more important and one of the first reasons according to researchers is that an individual starts taking drugs so that he may feel good. Most drugs induce a sense of great pleasure in the individual who has taken them, and more importantly, the user feels a sense of power, self confidence and self assurance that he would never feel in normal life. Perhaps, the sense of power, feelings of relaxation and of intense satisfaction that the drugs have given him induces him to take more, and then some more, until the time when he can no longer control his intake, and at which time he is considered to be addicted. Individuals, who may suffer from feelings of acute anxiety, or from stress related disorders, or from clinical depression, are also prone to use drugs to help them overcome these feelings. Some others may feel that drugs may help them perform better, like for example an athlete, who may take performance enhancing drugs that would help him win. Adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to drug addiction, perhaps because of peer pressure, or simply because ‘others are doing it, why not me?’ the sad fact is that although drugs may offer the user a sense of satisfaction and power at the outset, it is true that as time goes by, the user will feel that he has to take more quantities of the same drug, if he wished to achieve the same feelings of euphoria and pleasure. It is at this time that the user realizes that he would not be able to function without a ‘fix’, at which time he may be considered an ‘addict’. Drug addicts reach a point of time when they pursue the drug as if it were a lifeline, regardless of the behavioral problems that the Drug usage may cause in them, and the trouble that they may be causing others around them, because of the drug usage and addiction. It is at this point of time that drug usage becomes known as drug abuse and addiction, and it is at this point that the addict’s self control becomes severely strained and impaired. Scientists have conducted brain imaging and mapping studies of drug addicts, and the findings show that for addicted individuals, physical changes become evident in the areas of the brain that would normally control judgment, decision making, memory, and even behavior control. These are the changes in the brain that affect the addict’s behaviors, and they may well be able to shed light on the compulsive and the addictive behaviors displayed by an addict. A tragic factor is that an adolescent’s brain continues to develop and grow into adulthood, and when the adolescent uses drugs and becomes addicted to them, then he undergoes dramatic changes in his pre-frontal cortex, that area of the brain that would enable him to assess a particular give situation, make decisions based on his judgment of that situation, and keep his desires and yearnings under control, as any normal adolescent would do. This means that the adolescent would be forced to lose control over a given situation, and submit to the influence of drug addiction on his behavior. Therefore, say experts, introducing drugs or other substances at this stage of development would automatically have a long lasting negative impact on the young person who has become addicted. (Volkow, D Nora (2007)

Friday, November 8, 2019

Free Essays on Paul’s Views On The Proper Relationship Of Judaism To Christianity

Paul’s views on the proper relationship of Judaism to Christianity The spread of Christianity to the Non-Jews or Gentile world could not have been possible without the works of one man, Paul of Tarsus. Paul the so call â€Å"apostle to the Gentiles† (Romans 15:16) and the â€Å"minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles† (Romans 15:16) was one of the most important figures that â€Å"supplied the rational† (Hinson, 48) to incorporate the Gentiles into the church and to preach the gospel to them. He showed interest in defining the proper relationship of Judaism to Christianity. What is the relationship of Christians to traditional Jews laws? The relationship between these two started with a lot of conflicts and controversies. Gentiles were being converted and demanded that they follow the Jewish Laws (Moses Laws). One of the Jewish laws that was debated was about circumcision. The claim was that Gentile believers should be circumcised, and then, as part of the covenant people of God, obey the laws of the covenant. You would think that Paul someone who grew up in good Jewish family, would agree with this notion but he clearly disagree with this. This is shown when he says â€Å"If you through a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?† (Galatians 2:14). This verse shows that Paul agrees with Peter when Peter said "Now then, why do you try to test God by putting on the necks of the disciples a yoke that neither we nor our fathers have been able to bear? No! We believe it is through the grace of ou r Lord Jesus that we are saved, just as they are† (Acts 15:10-11). The point is that the Law of Moses were a burden that the Jewish people were not able to keep successfully. Those rituals showed that, no matter how hard people worked, they could never be perfect. They showed, for anyone who ever wondered, that works can never lead to salvation. On the view on what leads to salvation Pau... Free Essays on Paul’s Views On The Proper Relationship Of Judaism To Christianity Free Essays on Paul’s Views On The Proper Relationship Of Judaism To Christianity Paul’s views on the proper relationship of Judaism to Christianity The spread of Christianity to the Non-Jews or Gentile world could not have been possible without the works of one man, Paul of Tarsus. Paul the so call â€Å"apostle to the Gentiles† (Romans 15:16) and the â€Å"minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles† (Romans 15:16) was one of the most important figures that â€Å"supplied the rational† (Hinson, 48) to incorporate the Gentiles into the church and to preach the gospel to them. He showed interest in defining the proper relationship of Judaism to Christianity. What is the relationship of Christians to traditional Jews laws? The relationship between these two started with a lot of conflicts and controversies. Gentiles were being converted and demanded that they follow the Jewish Laws (Moses Laws). One of the Jewish laws that was debated was about circumcision. The claim was that Gentile believers should be circumcised, and then, as part of the covenant people of God, obey the laws of the covenant. You would think that Paul someone who grew up in good Jewish family, would agree with this notion but he clearly disagree with this. This is shown when he says â€Å"If you through a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?† (Galatians 2:14). This verse shows that Paul agrees with Peter when Peter said "Now then, why do you try to test God by putting on the necks of the disciples a yoke that neither we nor our fathers have been able to bear? No! We believe it is through the grace of ou r Lord Jesus that we are saved, just as they are† (Acts 15:10-11). The point is that the Law of Moses were a burden that the Jewish people were not able to keep successfully. Those rituals showed that, no matter how hard people worked, they could never be perfect. They showed, for anyone who ever wondered, that works can never lead to salvation. On the view on what leads to salvation Pau...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Health Care in Colombia Essay Sample

Health Care in Colombia Essay Sample Medicine in Colombia Essay Example Medicine in Colombia Essay Example Colombia is a developing country located in the northern part of South America. The country experiences regular social and economic difficulties such as the armed conflict in the 20th century and the current illegal drug trade. This state of affairs also contributes to high rates of disease transmission and health risks among the country’s major population groups. Colombia is selected for the analysis as it is reasonable to determine the impact of the above and other negative factors on the health condition of various gender and social groups. Moreover, it is necessary to examine the effectiveness of the governmental measures aimed at minimizing the transmission of diseases. Healthcare System in Colombia Finally, the relevant nursing implications should be formulated. This will allow determining the key health priorities and the corresponding interventions necessary for addressing the existing challenges. In general, the health situation in Colombia is very difficult, but it can be improved considerably if proper interventions are designed. Location/Geography Colombia is located in the northwestern part of South America. It borders with the following countries: Panama, Brazil, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador. It also has maritime borders with other countries. There are six major environmental regions in the country. They are very different according to their climate characteristics. The regions include both the Andes mountain region and the Amazon rainforest one. Colombia also corresponds to the Ring of Fire – the region of the world where substantial volcanic eruptions occur regularly. It creates substantial risks for the population, and the government has to direct major resources towards preventing the potential negative consequences. There are many large rivers in the country. The main ones are Cauca, Magdalena, Atrato and Guaviare. The problem of deforestation also exists, but its scope is lower in comparison with other countries from this region. Population The current population of Colombia is approximately 48 million people. Colombia is the third most populated country in the region (after Brazil and Mexico). The country is characterized by the stable increase of its population over the recent years. Government Colombia is the traditional presidential democratic republic. This form of the government is included in the country’s 1991 Constitution. The usual division of powers into the legislative, executive and judiciary branches is present in the country. The President of Colombia performs the functions of both the head of state and government. In such a way, he/she utilizes the opportunities of the executive branch to the maximum possible extent. Congress represents the major element of the national legislative branch. It has two Chambers: the Chamber of Representatives and Senate. Four-year terms are used for selecting both representatives and the President. There are four high courts in the country that form the major element of the judicial branch. The country is divided into 32 administrative departments and one capital district. Local governments are organized in all departments, and concentrate on satisfying the needs of the local population. Economy The Colombian economy has demonstrated high rates of economic growth in the 20th century. The country has become much more urbanized and industrialized than in previous historical periods. The current national GDP is $377.7 billion (The World Bank, 2015). The country is characterized by stable and positive rates of economic growth. They are presented in Fig. 2 (Trading Economics, 2015). The country is characterized by a sustainable economic growth. Although the rates of economic growth are not significantly high (the maximum rate is 2.7%), the country has all chances to avoid recession as of the previous several years, and the overall standard of living tends to increase. The largest fraction of the country’s GDP is generated by insurance, finance, real estate, and business services. At the same time, the impact of manufacturing and construction industries is also considerable. Moreover, taxes in Colombia are high, and they do not allow actual and potential entrepreneurs to receive the desired amounts of profit. It also contributes to the growth of illegal drug trade in the country and similar problems. Despite these economic difficulties, the country’s GDP per capita has a stable and positive dynamics. It is presented in Fig. 3. The population’s standards of living tend to increase. Taking into account that the country’s population also increases, Colombia shows a very serious economic progress. However, the current GDP per capita is around $4,500, and it is a comparatively low level even for developing countries (Trading Economics, 2015). It means that Colombia should facilitate its economic development to reduce the gap between its economy and those of developed countries. Colombia enjoys a strong position in terms of developing alternative sources of energy. Renewable sources constitute the largest fraction of energy produced in the country. In particular, hydroelectric generation is well-developed in the country. Colombia has one of the most efficient green energy sectors in the world. However, the innovation potential in other spheres of the national economy is still low. Thus, the Colombian government tries to minimize the existing misbalances of the national economy through declining the fraction of illegal trade and balancing the interests of the private and public sectors. However, the substantial fiscal burden does not create favorable conditions for the national entrepreneurial development. Therefore, further reforms in this sphere as well as a more productive cooperation with international partners and organizations are required. State of Health The current state of health in Colombia is not optimal even in comparison with other developing countries. The current life expectancy in Colombia is equal to 78.1 years. More specifically, it is 81.0 years for women and 75.1 years for men (WHO, 2015). The major causes of deaths in Colombia include coronary heart disease (17%), violence (11%), stroke (8%), lung disease (6%), and influenza (5%). HIV/AIDS is the 19th cause of death in the country. The current healthcare expenditure per capita is $533 (The World Bank, 2015). Although it is much lower than that of the developed countries, it is better than in many neighboring developing countries. Colombia also has unsatisfactory rates of cancer development in the country. The most common types of cancer include prostate cancer (16%), breast cancer (13%), stomach cancer (13%), lung cancers (11%), and cervical cancer (9%) (WHO, 2015). In comparison with other countries, Colombia has a weak position in relation to diseases associated with other neoplasms (8.6%), and it is the third largest level of this disease in the world. Colombia has a strong position in relation to oral cancer (1.5%) and uterin cancer (1%) (WHO, 2015). The smoking percentage is 31% among males and 5% among females. This level is much lower than the average one in the world. Thus, the health state regarding smoking is satisfactory. The obesity percentage is 16.1% among males and 25.7% among females. These levels are also satisfactory in comparison with other countries of the world. However, the current happiness score based on people’s subjective assessment of their living conditions in Colombia is 6. 5, which makes it an average result compared to other countries of the world (WHO, 2015). The probability of dying between 15 and 60 is 148 per 1,000 for males and 73 per 1,000 for females. The life expectancy at birth is equal to 75 years for men and 81 years for women (WHO, 2015). In general, women have much better health in comparison with men. Malaria is a serious health problem in Colombia. The country’s population has the following epidemiological profile. 15% of the population are characterized by a high transmission (1 case per 1,000 people) and 8% of the population are characterized by a low transmission (1 case per 1,000 people) (WHO, 2015). Taking into account this situation, the national healthcare agencies should be more oriented towards preventing the occurrence of such epidemic threats in the future. Tuberculosis is also a serious problem in the country. Although its rates tend to decline, they are still below the satisfactory level. The dynamics of tuberculosis in Colombia is presented in Fig. 4 (WHO, 2015). The country has achieved a substantial progress for the previous 10 years, but the number of tuberculosis patients is still comparatively high. Violence is highly widespread in Colombia. It is the second major cause of death in the country. Moreover, the rates of violence are the seventh highest in the world (WHO, 2015). The annual number of deaths in Colombia caused by violence is equal to 18,075, and constitutes more than 10% of total deaths (WHO, 2015). The death rate is 37.6 per 100,000 of the population being among the highest in the world. One of the possible indirect causes of violence in the country is the illegal drug trade in Colombia. As the government is unable to reduce the distribution of drugs in the country, this social aspect remains almost unregulated. Criminals prefer using violent methods to achieve their objectives. Moreover, criminals often use Colombia as a center of the drug distribution to other countries and regions of the world. Road traffic accidents are also widespread in the country. They constitute the sixth major cause of deaths in Colombia. The annual number of deaths because of road traffic accidents equals to 7,813 (4.6% of the total number of deaths) (WHO, 2015). The age adjusted death rate in Colombia is 17.05 per 100,000, which makes it approximately the average level compared to other countries of the world. Culture/Traditional Medicine Culture is both diverse and well-developed in Colombia. Due to the country’s geographical location, it experiences the impact of many cultures and traditions. Both European and Native American views are widespread and coexist with one another. Moreover, in this environment, new cultural approaches are applied. The national Ministry of Culture is responsible for solving the most urgent problems in this area as well as promoting Colombian culture abroad. The national culture reflects the current social and economic trends such as globalization, migration and industrialization. Colombian culture both experiences the impact of other cultures and affects the global cultural environment. The most well-known writer from Colombia is Gabriel Garcia Marquez. He is a Nobel Prize winner and one of the most influential novelists of the 20th century. The most popular music genres in Colombia include salsa, pop, rock, cumbia, etc. Shakira is the most famous Colombian pop-singer. Colombian music is very popular in the world because an effective cooperation between the private and public sectors exist in this context. Colombian cuisine is very different from cuisines of other countries. It includes many tropical fruits, soups, unique desserts and beverages such as coffee, cholado, and juices. Football, motor racing and boxing are the most popular kinds of sports in Colombia. In general, the country is well-integrated into the global sports system. Traditional medicine is very popular in Colombia both for historical reasons and due to the comparatively low economic level of the population. Around 40% of the Colombian population relies on traditional medicine in various forms. It is the most popular kind of healthcare in the northern part of the country. Homeopathy has been recognized by the government as a legitimate system of medicine since 1905. The standardized requirements were implemented by the government in 1914 (WHO, 2015). In general, traditional medicine principles continue being highly popular in the country. They are of high demand not only among the members of the lower classes but also other social groups. Healthcare System and Delivery The healthcare system in Colombia is based on the close cooperation between the government and non-government agencies. The government performs the majority of controlling functions and organizes the work of other stakeholders. Non-governmental organizations are free to introduce innovations and realize independent projects as far as they do not contradict the existing norms and regulations. The general supervision of the healthcare industry is provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection of Colombia. It aims at providing the universal access to healthcare services for all Colombian citizens. It participates in all social projects that are related to healthcare issues. It tries to organize the public policy initiatives in an optimal way. The Ministry of Health and Social Protection is responsible for presenting and advocating for the national interests in the sphere of healthcare. The ministry investigates the long-term trends related to the quality of healthcare and life and designs the corresponding interventions. Colombia experiences problems with the availability of nurses in the country. The current ratio is 1 nurse per 1,000 people (The World Bank, 2015). As the Colombia’s population is equal to around 48 million people, the number of nurses is around 48,000 professionals, and this does not allow satisfying the total demand for nurses and care in the country. The fraction of physicians in the country is lower in comparison with nurses. This situation is typical for both developed and developing countries. There is no need to educate and train as many physicians as nurses due to the specific structure of demand for healthcare services. The current number of physicians is 0.7 per 1,000 people (The World Bank, 2015). It means that the current number of physicians is around 33,600 professionals in Colombia. It seems to be satisfactory and adequate regarding the existing healthcare issues and threats in the country. Colombia has a centralized system of nursing education. Licensure and similar functions are performed by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection while the nursing education is mostly organized by the Ministry of Education. In general, the government is able to regulate the performance of both of these Ministries in a way to achieve the maximum possible synergic effect. Both Ministries orient not only to the current level of healthcare needs but also to the expected future state of consumer demand. The government tries to allocate the available scarce resources rationally to promote the social well-being of the population. Colombia does not have a well-established network of healthcare organizations and tries to integrate its operations in the global healthcare system through cooperating with international nursing organizations. These include the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses, the Association of Child Neurology Nurses, the Emergency Nurses Association, etc. Colombia aims at expanding its cooperation with international nursing organizations. Health Priorities Colombia has several health priorities that should be addressed in the near future. It means that these issues require the close attention and the effective coordination of efforts between the public and private sectors. The first health priority is minimizing the spreading of coronary heart disease as it causes around 17% of all deaths in the country (WHO, 2015). It seems that the complex national strategy should be implemented to solve this problem. The government should increase its funding of healthcare initiatives related to dealing with the causes and effects of coronary heart disease. Consequently, healthcare providers should develop innovative mechanisms to address this problem. The second health priority is minimizing the scope of violence in the country. It is a very serious problem because violence causes around 10% of deaths in the country, and the scope of violence is among the largest in all countries of the world (WHO, 2015). This problem is not only related to health but also requires improving the existing situation with illegal drug trade and other similar problems. The third health priority is examining tuberculosis- and malaria-related threats. Currently, Colombia is able to control the transmission of these diseases, but the risk and potential social harm are very high. Therefore, close attention should be paid to the epidemiological situation in the country. The fourth health priority is addressing the problems related to men’s health as men experience higher health problems in comparison with women in all age groups (Semenic, DeBruyn, Ochoa-Marà ­n, 2014). The causes of this state of affairs should be specified (including broad econom ic and social factors), and the corresponding measures should be taken. Nursing Implications The stated health priorities will impact the overall national healthcare strategy. They are especially important for nurses as they are the ones who adjust the strategies accordingly. The first priority refers to helping patients cope with coronary heart disease. Nurses should both increase their qualification in this field and be able to identify patients’ symptoms at earlier stages. In this way, the treatment process can be improved substantially, and the overall mortality rates can be reduced. Nurses may also implement changes at the national level regarding a more active use of modern technologies. Currently, Colombia does not have the necessary amount of modern equipment especially in the northern regions of the country. If this problem is addressed, nurses may become more capable of minimizing the risks associated with coronary heart disease. The second health priority refers to violence-related issues. It seems that nurses cannot address this problem directly, but they can promote a more responsible attitude to one’s own health and that of others among the Colombian citizens. Nurses should focus on young people as they are often involved in the acts of violence (Mesurado et al., 2014). The third health priority is controlling the epidemiological situation in the country. Nurses should monitor the general epidemiological situation not only in Colombia but also other countries of Latin America (Caro Rios et al, 2014). In such a way, it is possible to identify the potential threats in advance and provide the corresponding preventive measures to the population. The fourth health priority refers to improving the health state of men as this gender group is in a disadvantaged position in the country. Nurses should identify the related problems and the ultimate causes of this tendency. In particular, drug-related issues should be addressed. Nurses should provide additional rehabilitative services for patients who require them. Thus, nurses should play a central role in addressing the selected health priorities. The close cooperation with international nursing organizations may contribute to designing an optimal long-term strategy that will take into account the interests of all parties involved as well as address all major risks and threats.