Friday, August 23, 2019

Programs for Incarcerated Women Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Programs for Incarcerated Women - Research Paper Example Previously, women in prison were arrested and incarcerated for violent crimes such as murder, poisoning and arson, but the last few decades saw that a growing number of new female inmates were inside a prison for non-violent crimes, meaning these are crimes which are economic in nature. This is not a surprising fact, given that a lot of female inmates belong to racial and ethnic or other minorities such as those belonging to the lower socio-economic classes or being uneducated. The negative effect of incarcerated mothers gave rise to innovative ideas and approaches when it comes to dealing with children whose mothers are in prison. Special attention was paid to their daughters, and that is how the Girl Scouts of the USA came out with their â€Å"Girl Scouts Beyond Bars† program which made a positive influence on people who would otherwise had lost hope. Keywords: daughters, drugs, economic, girl scouts, incarcerated, women in prison Introduction The issue of women in prison is a very sensitive topic for most people. Only lately has it caught the attention of policy makers, politicians and other interested parties because of the so-called women's movement, or feminism. The previous research on this subject was limited to the gender gap among highly visible political issues such as voting preferences between males and females, social equality discussions at the workplace, abortion rights and gender differences in attitudes towards crime and punishment. Some studies showed that most women, who feel that they are more vulnerable to crime due to their enhanced feelings of insecurity, usually favor a harsher and more severe punishment for convicted offenders to serve as deterrence. Female attitudes with regard to appropriate punishments include a longer prison sentence and capital punishment. The prevailing psychology in this regard is that punishment is used as deterrence for potential crime offenders and that the said punishment will somehow reduce crime in society. Women feel particularly vulnerable when it comes to certain crimes in which by their very nature, women are the predominant victims, such as domestic violence and rape. A general perception is that the two sexes have a different attitude towards crime and punishment, with women oriented to more â€Å"ethic in care† while men prefer the â€Å"ethic in equity of justice† by which criminals must be punished immediately with enough severity, sometimes by applying death penalty. Only lately has the issue of women in prison been brought out into the open and included in the public discourse. The feminists have done quite a job in highlighting the problems of women in prison, including the racial and economic differences found to be inherent in the criminal justice system, and in particular, how female prisoners fare. This topic is the subject of this paper. Discussion The previous focus of the women's movement had been on the perceived vulnerability of women to cert ain crimes targeting them specifically. This feeling of fear and insecurity is of a great consequence in terms of their feeling and perception as potential victims. However, a new feminist focus today is one on the problem of women ending up in prisons and all the other issues related to female incarceration. The prior years had been focused on women as victims, but this new tack in public discourse has now shifted to women as

Historical Influence of Soccer in Africa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Historical Influence of Soccer in Africa - Essay Example Football in Africa today is a game of skill, violence and ebullient spontaneity. The richness of the talent has not been watched by the administrative expertise to bring it to full fruition. Africa has to overcome poverty of natural resources but instead of falling into despair the young African children of Africa turn to soccer as their way out in some cases. will establish an instant connection. Soccer in Africa is followed passionately all over. One could easily establish when football is being played. This is through a country becoming into a standstill when soccer is being played. The development of soccer in Africa has been enhanced in the recent past. Boys and young girls no longer stay idle in their leisure time. Everywhere you go in Africa be it Morocco, South Africa, Nigeria, Congo, Kenya e.t.c. you will find young boys and girls kicking around a football.2 Sometimes the ball will be made of plastic bags with strings wrapped around it. Sometimes it will be made of crumpled up paper. As long as it can be kicked, there will be a game.3 After 1960's soccer in Africa has developed greatly. However, it is yet to reach the level of the game in Europe and Latin America. To speed up its development, Confederation of African Football (CAF) was formed to spearhead and manage soccer in Africa. Under CAF, Africa Cup of nations was started. This is a league that brings together all African countries in finals for African Cup of Nations qualifiers. This league was started in 1957 and it has gone through various stages to be where it is today. Confederation of African football CAF) was founded in 1956 and immediately began making plans for a continental championship tournament. Four teams were expected to play in the first tournament, hosted by Sudan in February of 1957. However, South ______________________ 2. Ibid 3. www.cafonline.com. Africa which was expected to play was excluded because of its apartheid government wouldn't send a multi-racial team, so it came down to just three, that is Egypt, Ethiopia and the host Sudan. Since then, the field for the African Cup of nations has gradually increased to four. Six, eight, twelve and presently fifteen teams. Originally the tournament was to be played in odd numbered years. However, the 1961 event was postponed to 1962, resulting in championships in consecutive years, and the 1967 also had moved back a year. Since 1968, the tournament has been played biennially, in even-numbered years. Besides the African Cup of nations, there are other leagues which are played under the confederation of African Football. These tournaments are as follows:- The African Youth Championship: this is the main international football competition for confederation of African football. This football competition is played by under 20 years old players. The competition is played with the top four teams qualifying for the FIFA World Youth championship. Until 1989 the African representatives were determined purely on a qualifying basis with no African title on the line. Since 1991, there has been qualifying stage followed by a final

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Hawaii Weddings Essay Example for Free

Hawaii Weddings Essay Wedding Style in Hawaii Like most of the rest of the world weddings, in Hawaii symbolizes tradition and cultural elements in a colorful and beautiful place intended to bring fortune, luck and happiness to couples who are going to be for the rest of their lives together. Hawaiian brides, traditionally wear a Hawaiian dress called holoku. A holoku is a wedding dress with flowers and in her hair as well. Men usually wear a white shirt, white pants and a colorful sash. Casual foot wear is permitted, unless if the wedding is inside a house, footwear may be avoided. Another Hawaiian symbol for wedding eremony is the leis. Leis are a traditional flower garlands worn around the neck. Two main leis made of fragrant flowers and green leaves are especially made for the groom and bride. These main leis represent the peoples relationship with nature as a traditional aspect. The brides lei have white Jasmine and the grooms lei have Lima. Also, both the mother-in-laws wear especially made leis which have an abundance of jasmine. The weddings are announced by three blows ofa conch shell in a consecutive manner. This conch shell represents the summoning of God to support the ceremony. Fireworks also are part of the weddings symbolizing the pushing of evil away. The performance of dance called pandango is required, its also performed in many weddings and its often called the money dance, encircling the couples with a strong of taped money. Cultures around the world has affected Hawaiian weddings as well, as one of the influences is the wedding cake. Hawaiian wedding cakes are usually made of wheat flour, symbolizing the beginning of a new relationship together. This relationship is further strengthened by sharing the knife for cake cutting and presenting the first slice to each other.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Old And New Testament Views On Social Justice Religion Essay

Old And New Testament Views On Social Justice Religion Essay Christians regard the Bible as a uniquely important source for human life on matters of belief and practice. For human beings to live a life that is meaningful and dignified, they have to be in a just and fair society that looks up to the need of others. For this to happen justice has to be emphasized, it has to be the driving force. In the Bible, God clearly imposed social concern upon his people especially the poor and the marginalized. In Bible, numerous passages such as; in 1 John 3: 17 and James 3:14-17 draw peoples attention towards social concern and social justice. DEFINITION OF SOCIAL JUSTICE. Defining social justice, Dr Paul Kengor said, Historically, social justice has meant different things to different people, and so equally todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦(Online). This statement actually means that social justice is a just a branch of justice that accommodates all forms of justice, it being restorative justice, economic justice distributive justice, rectificatory justice and so forth. We can in this paper therefore, say that biblical justice entirely consists of social justice because there are many chapters like Matthew 18:23-35 it talks about penal fairness that needs punishment by the book but lacks mercy is not the kind of justice desired by God. Also in Matt 20:1-16: the summary on social justice is an economy of care for the common good through social sustainability, healing, and transformation. Marshall in his book said, There is huge amount data to deal with. There are hundreds of texts in the Old and New Testament, which speaks explicitly about justice, and hundreds more, which refer to it implicitly. Justice is in fact one of the most frequently recurring to topics in the Bible (2005:3). What actually Marshall means here is that, Biblical justice covers all aspects of life in terms of justice such as the personal and the social, the public and the private, the political and religious, the human and nonhuman. But on the other hand, such remarks may mean that biblical justice does not consist entirely of social justice, but also independent justices such as political justice and many others. Marshall said, Justice entails the appropriate distribution of social benefits and penalties and contending parties(2005:6). Still more despite such analysis, social justice in biblical justice concept, remain inclusive of other justices because, the product of each justice is a social concern to the need. OLD TESTAMENT CONCEPTS OF JUSTICE Marshall in his book wrote, Often in Hebrew Bible, righteousness (sedeqah) and Justice (mishpat) occur as a word pair with virtually identical meaning: But let justice roll down like water, and righteousness like an overflowing stream (Amos 5:24)(2005:12. So this statement means that righteousness in the Bible incorporates the idea of doing justice and doing justice conveys the idea of putting right what has gone wrong. Social justice of the Old Testament indeed was concerned with giving according to need thought it worked antagonistically; to the other it was really social justice and to another a different justice. For example, the deliverance of Israel by God from slavery in Egypt, it was a justice on social concern to them by God; but it was under a covenant. Marshall said, Biblical justice is therefore covenant justice. It is the practical outworking of Israels special relationship with God (2005:15). We can say, that indeed God did well for the Israelites out of the obedience to the law He gave them through Moses at Mount Sinai. The Law actually reviews what needed for Israel to live in peace, to experience what the God intended for human society, and all was done out of the covenant which was made. In this justice, Israel had seen God intervene in their liberation from the oppression of slavery, to lead her safely through the wilderness and to constitute her as a free independent people. This became Israels own experience that God was a God of justice, Isaiah 30:8. Gods justice towards the covenant people was a call the Israelites to act towards one another I the way God had acted towards them, with justice, mercy and equity. It is also recorded in some chapters like in Leviticus 19: 15 You shall not render an unjust judgement; you shall not be partial to the poor or defer to the great: with justiceyou shall judge your neighbour. It is aslo written on social justice in the Old Testament that, You shall not deprive a resident alien or an orphan of justice; you shall not take the widows garment in pledge. Remenber that you were a slave in Egypt and the Lord your God redeemed you from there; therefore I command you to do this, Deuteronomy 24:17-18. This has actually pointed to Marshalls description of Gods justice for covenant, through biblical justice which leds to social justice and further with the concerns with giving according to need. Sometime, Biblical justice points at social justice with no concern to giving according to need. Marshall said, justice requires impartiality; at other time partiality(2005:38). In Exodus 23:3, nor shall you be partial to the poor in a lawsuit. As for Marshall, he poits to this kind of justice in accord to what he called criminal justice. Actually, we can support his point with the biblical justice on social justice in Exodus 22:21-24. God warns the Egyptians with His wrath in favour of the resident aliens, widows and orphans. In other instances, Marshall said, Gods bias or preferential option for the por is, ultimately, in the interest of equity. In the perennial struggle for social Justice (2005:41). This statement from Marshall actually talks about distributive justice that considers fair dealing between men. This is also a biblical justice of Gods bias according to Marshall, can be seen through Gods historic intervention to rescue powerless impoverished Israel fro the hands of the Pharoahs in Egypt, and feed them in wilderness. This is Gods justice which is purely social justice which was give according to the neen of Israel at that particular time. The other Gods justice which is in nature of social justice that is concerned with the giving according need is actually in Deuteronomy 24:19-2. This justice provides specific welfare and protection for the por and vulnerable. It is inform of law which guarantees access to food. They are given justice according to the need for survival. This is purely a social justice for social concern in biblical justice. OLD TESTAMENT CONCEPT OF JUSTICE. In the New Testament, biblical justice is not different from that of the Old Testament because the words that are used for justice remain the same, like righteousness but differs only that most of them are teaching by Jesus Christ. Jesus in part of this bible portrays biblical justice consisting social justice by barely giving according to the need. Marshall wrote, At the outset of His ministry, Jesus deliberately evoked this messianic expectation by defining His own mission in terms of bringing justice to the poor (2005:50). Indeed this is what Jesus had started to do, Isaiah 61:1. The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to bring good news to the oppressed, to bind up the broken -hearted, and to proclaim liberty to the captives release to the prisoners. For Jesus to accomplish this he rejected social discrimination, he promoted social justice and gave it according to the need. To the rich man who wanted to know he was to do to enter the kingdom of god, Jesus to him to sell all that he had and share the money with the poor. This is another biblical justice from our Lord Jesus Christ, as sign for social justice, which he had promoted. To fight social discrimination, Jesus openly criticized the self-righteous arrogance of the religious experts and knowingly antagonized them by enjoying intimate fellowship with sinners and outcasts. For example in Matthew 9:13 when He said, I desire mercy, not sacrifice. For I have come to call not the righteous but sinners and also in Luke 5:27-23, a story of how He met Levi the tax collector and how the Pharisees and Scribes complained about it. Therefore, social justice of Jesus who is characterized by giving according to need viewed in Levis story, Jesus also assessed a new community, which was inclusive, and the poor were to be given preferential option. CONCLUSION. Indeed, both Old and New Testament provide Biblical justice which is entirely consist of social justice that is concerned only with the giving according to the need because it is a complex multifaceted reality. It relates to every dimension of human experience. Biblical justice to its social justice seeks to restore dignity to those who have been unjustly deprived of, to meet their basic needs. Jesus proclaimed of the Kingdom of God as a social justice. That is, proper use of wealthy and not excluding the weak and the vulnerable from participation in national matters.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Polymers and plastics in biomedical applications

Polymers and plastics in biomedical applications Introduction Polymers are increasingly being used to fabricate biomedical materials for tissue engineering and wound treatment applications, as well as for drug delivery. For tissue engineering and wound treatment applications, the mechanical properties of the polymeric material have to be matched to the specific application. An example of tissue engineering is the use of bioresorbable polymeric orthopedic materials for bone regeneration applications. The degradable material supports the growth and adhesion of new bone cells (chondrocytes) and is porous so as to provide a large, continuous surface for cell proliferation throughout the matrix. The degradable material serves to maintain mechanical integrity while the bone heals itself. The materials are designed to degrade in a time suitable for the particular application, but may be on the order of six months to twenty-four months. An example of an external wound treatment application is artificial skin, where the polymeric material provides protection as new growth develops. Other materials are used internally to separate organs after surgical procedures. In tissue engineering and wound treatment applications the mechanical properties of the materials have to meet requirements specific to the application. In this experiment you will determine how the tensile properties of films of plasticized biopolymers depend on the chemical formulation of the material. Such applications are based on the polymer materials being degradable as well as biocompatible. Other applications might require materials that are biocompatible and nondegradable, such as long-term polyethylene implants. Polymers Polymers can be synthetic or biological. Synthetic polymers are almost always made from nonrenewable fossil feedstocks, mainly petroleum. Examples are polyethylene, polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), and polypropylene, all of which are polyolefins. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) [PET] is a synthetic polyester. None of the above-named polymers are degradable, the main reason being that the polymer backbones contain only carbon-carbon single bonds. Examples of biodegradable polymers derived from petroleum are poly(vinyl alcohol) [a polyalcohol], poly(ethylene glycol)[a polyether], and the polyesters polycaprolactone and poly(glycolic acid). Polymers with heteroatoms in their backbones are generally biodegradable, although there are exceptions. Biological polymers (biopolymers) are found in nature; they are intrinsically biodegradable. Abundant biopolymers include plant polysaccharides such as starch (composed of amylose and amylopectin), cellulose, agarose, and carrageenan, and animal polysaccharides such as chitin and the glycosaminoglycans. Abundant proteins include gelatin(denatured/hydrolyzed collagen), casein, keratin, and fibroin. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is an example of a synthetic commercial polymer in which the monomer, lactic acid, is produced in large amounts through fermentation; the polymer is then synthesized by conventional methods. PLA is biodegradable. Mechanical Properties In implant and wound healing applications, the mechanical properties of the materials are of critical importance. In this experiment you will carry out tensile tests—tests in which specimens are placed between two clamps (grips) and drawn. The instrument measures and displays the force being applied (the load) and the resulting increase in the length of the sample (elongation, also called extension). From the dimensions of the film specimen (width and thickness), the instrument software calculates and displays the tensile stress (ï  ³), equal to the load (F) per unit area of cross section (A = width x thickness). It also calculates the (tensile) strain (ï  ¥), equal to the elongation (extension) divided by the original length of that portion of the specimen being measured (called the gage length). [In our experiment, the gage length is simply the separation of the grips securing the specimen.] The instrument will display percent elongation, which is the strain multiplied by 100. As the tensile test proceeds, the instrument generates and displays a tensile stress-strain curve, which is a diagram that displays values of tensile stress (in MPa) plotted against tensile strain (%). The test continues until the specimen breaks. From the stress-strain curve, the software determines, and reports the following results in table form: (1) Tensile strength at break (or ultimate strength), which is the tensile stress at break. (2) Elongation at break, as a percentage. (3) Youngs modulus (also known as elastic modulus or modulus of elasticity or sometimes simply as modulus). It is calculated as the initial slope of the stress-strain curve, which is usually observed to be linear with plastic films. This initial region reflects the elastic deformation of the specimen, in which the stress varies linearly with strain, analogous to Hookes law for the expansion of a spring. Beyond the linear region, the behavior is termed viscous; polymers and plastics are said to be viscoelastic materials. Modulus is a measure of the stiffness of the polymer or plastic. Table 1. Typical tensile properties of materials Material t.s.(MPa) elong.(%) modulus(MPa) polyethylene, low density 10 620 166 polycaprolactone 26 600-1000 435 polypropylene 36 1380 poly(lactic acid), biaxially oriented film 110/145 160/100 3310/3860 keratin(human hair) 526 46 6700 copper, annealed 240 30 100,000-130,000 steel 380-700 200,000-250,000 glass 2160-4830 50,000-70,000 Encyclopedia of Chemistry, 4th ed.; Handbook of Physics, 2nd ed. Experimental Procedure 1. Film casting Prepare the following cast films of plasticized biopolymers. Sample 1 Place 32 mL of 2%(v/v) aqueous glycerol solution in a 200 mL beaker. Add 88 mL water and 2.40 g starch and 4.8 g agar. Heat with stirring to approximately 85-95  °C or until the polymer is in solution; do not boil. Slowly pour the solution into the big petri dish on a flat level surface. Try to remove all imperfections (bubbles) from the surface. Sample 2. Repeat using 32 mL glycerol solution, 88 mL water, and 1.20 g starch and 3.6 g agar. Sample 3. Repeat using 48 mL glycerol solution, 72 mL water, and 1.20 g starch and 3.0 g agar. Sample 4. Repeat using 48 mL glycerol solution, 72 mL water, and 2.40 g starch and 3.5 g agar. Allow the solutions to set for approximately one hour then place the petri dish in the drying oven. Label all petri dishes. 2. Film conditioning After the agar films have been in the drying oven for about 24 hours, remove the petri dishes from the oven and place them in the large relative-humidity conditioning box (maintained at approximately 50% relative humidity) for 24-48 hours. 3. Preparing test specimens After conditioning, the films are ready to have test specimens prepared from them. Working with one sample at a time, remove the petri dish from the conditioning box. Slowly and carefully remove the film from the petri dish by first peeling one corner and then applying fairly equal pressure to the entire width of the film as it comes off the petri dish lengthwise. Place the sample on a piece of cardboard. Using the 1/4 wide aluminum template as a straight edge, and the cutting knife, cut a rectangle approximately 3.5 x 3 from the center of the film, so as not to include any edges, as they are often not as uniform in thickness as the center. Align the sample on the cardboard as follows: Place the 1/4 wide aluminum template vertically near one of the edges. Using the cutting tool, cut on both sides of the template to produce a specimen 3.5 long and 1/4 wide. Cut as cleanly as possible so as not to notch or tear the specimen. Cut six or seven additional strips, but do not use the second cut of the previous specimen as the first edge of the next; make two new cuts to produce each specimen. Place the cut specimens on a piece of filter paper and transfer them into the dessicator located next to the Instron instrument. Similarly prepare specimens from the other three film samples. 4. Measuring mechanical properties of test specimens During the laboratory you will measure the mechanical properties of the fours cast films. Measure at least five specimens for each of the four film samples. As you remove each specimen from the dessicator, you will be measuring the thickness of the specimen with a digital caliper. 5. Operating the Instron Testing Instrument Refer instrument manual. 6. Laboratory Report 1. Express the compositions of the four film samples in terms of the weight percent of each component to two significant figures (excluding water); i.e. % agar, % glycerol (the density of glycerol is 1.26) and, if present, % starch. 2. Prepare a summary table of results showing the mean values of tensile strength (Mpa) (to 3 sig. figs.) and its standard deviation, elongation (%) (to 2 sig. figs.) and its standard deviation, and elastic modulus (MPa) (to 3 sig.figs.) and its standard deviation. [ASTM specifies these numbers of significant figures; a smaller number of significant figures would otherwise be justified given the observed standard deviations.] 3. For the three agar-glycerol films what correlation do you observe between the effect of glycerol on one property and its effect on the others? Prepare a graph for each of the properties showing variation with composition. In Excel you can show a standard error for each point separately by using a separate data series for each point. Do not show a trend line and do not attempt to connect the data points.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Review Of the City Of Mexico In The Age Of Diaz Essays -- essays res

The Great Divide University of California-Berkley geographer and author Michael Johns argues in his novel, The City of Mexico in the Age of Diaz, that the central Zocalo of Mexico City does more than geographically segregate the East from the West, but Mexico’s national mentality as well. During the years of Diaz’s democratic faà §ade, the upper classes thrived upon plantation exports, feudalist economics and the iron fist of Diaz’s rurales while struggling to maintain European social likeness. East of the Zocalo, shantytowns housed thousands of poor pelados that served as societal blemishes of a suburbanite’s experience. In Johns’s work, the penniless and indigenous serve as the scapegoats for the priviledged and their obsession with grooming Mexico City to be a little Europe.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A growing affluent class called upon the Diaz regime and imported architects to construct buildings in the Zocalo to reflect a â€Å"proper† image that drew on influences from Europe and the United States. Johns recognizes the architectural dependence of the influential Mexicans constructing Mexico City when he states, â€Å"Mexican architecture, on the other hand, was an expression of a city run by a people who were looking to create their own culture while entirely dependent on the industry and ideas of Europe and America† (22). The same construction that the elite felt was a celebration of a newfound dignity in the Mexican people was criticized, by visitors and locals alike, as grandiose and a futile effort to shield the native roots of a circle of imposters. Johns’s argues that the â€Å"Mexicans knew little of their adopted European tradition, had acquired even less of its taste, and enjoyed none of its tranquility† (23). While the influence on the Westside led to development, the squalor and lack of authority of the peasants on the Eastside created mesones, or as Johns described them, â€Å"†¦a little more than ‘a bare spot to lie down in, a grass mat, company with (the) vermin that squalor breeds†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ã¢â‚¬  (48). Politics on the Westside of the Zocalo were concerned little with the living conditions of the majority. No one would undertake the unglamorous task of assisting the poor, but rather they attempted to veil the masses in the shadow of their refined buildings and recent assumption of culture.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another shield of the upper classes was t... ...rural hamlets, many in the big city drowned their sorrows in pulque †¦ it accounted for over 90 percent of all the alcohol drunk in the capital †¦ The suggestive power of a bright scene or an exotic name painted on the faà §ade was at times enhanced by a slogan like ‘Drink Pulque, Be Happy† (50-51). The little solace the masses gained from their wages was usually happily wasted in one night after the paycheck had arrived. Aspiring to drown their social inferiority, pulque crippled the east side’s population. In essence, both rich and poor yearned to gain acceptance, at conscious or subconscious levels.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mexico City in the Age of Diaz is a literary illustration of one country’s struggle to define itself as a modern, cultured nation. Written mainly in the upper class point of view, the poor masses are defamed as lesser, indigenous beings. This anxiety of the Westside population and â€Å"President† Diaz lead not to reform but to exploitation and ignorance of social dilemmas. Europe and the United States served as a model for these citizens who craved status and acceptance due to the inherent inferiority complex gained by a historically conquered people.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Euthanasia Essay - Concerns About Euthanasia -- Euthanasia Physician A

  Ã‚   A medical examiner from Oakland County, Michigan and three researchers from the University of South Florida have studied key characteristics of 69 patients whose suicides were assisted by Jack Kevorkian between 1990 and 1998. Their findings are published in the December 7 New England Journal of Medicine. Autopsies show that only 25 percent of Kevorkian's clients were terminally ill when he helped them kill themselves. "Seventy-two percent of the patients had had a recent decline in health status that may have precipitated the desire to die." However, "no anatomical disease was confirmed at autopsy" in 5 of the 69 people. In light of the generally lower rate of suicide among women, it was notable that 71% of these patients were women. Persons who were divorced or never married were over-represented among Kevorkian's clients, "suggesting the need for a better understanding of the familial and psychosocial context of decision making at the end of life" [L. Roscoe, J. Malphurs, L. Dragovic, and D. Cohen, "Dr. Jack Kevorkian and Cases of Euthanasia in Oakland County, Michigan, 1990-1998," Correspondence, 343 New England Journal of Medicine 1735-6 (Dec. 7, 2000)].    Numerous studies have established that the Americans most directly affected by the issue of physician-assisted suicide -- those who are frail, elderly and suffering from terminal illness -- are also more opposed to legalizing the practice than others are:    * A poll conducted for the Washington Post on March 22-26, 1996, found 50% support for legalizing physician-assisted suicide (Washington A18) Voters aged 35-44 supported legalization, 57% to 33%. But these figures reversed for voters aged 65 and older, who opposed legalization 54% to 38%. Majo... ... suicide: attitudes and experiences of oncology patients, oncologists, and the public." 347 The Lancet 1805 (June 29, 1996):1809    Humphry, Derek. "What's in a word?" Euthanasia Research & Guidance Organization 1993, Table 1-A.    Koenig, Dr. Harold et al.. "Attitudes of Elderly Patients and their Families Toward Physician-Assisted Suicide." 156 Archives of Internal Medicine 2240 (Oct. 28, 1996)    Lee v. Oregon, 891 F.Supp. 1429 (D. Or. 1995), vacated on other grounds, 107 F.3d 1382 (9th Cir. 1997), cert. denied, 118 S. Ct. 328 (1997).    "Poll Shows More Would Support Law Using Gentler Language," TimeLines (Jan.-Feb. 1994):9    Washington v. Glucksberg, 117 S. Ct. 2258, 2262 n. 7 (1997. -- -- --. 117 S. Ct. at 2272, quoting United States v. Rutherford, 442 U.S. 544, 558. 1979.    Washington Post, April 4, 1996.